The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a bariatric (Metabolic) procedure in which approximately 85% of the stomach has been removed and the remaining stomach has been shaped like a tube or “sleeve”. Initially this procedure was considered as first stage procedure for the super obese. However over a period of time it was realized that the results of this procedure were very encouraging. Hence now as days it has been accepted worldwide standalone bariatric procedure.
As with all other bariatric operations, Sleeve gastrectomy Surgery is also performed laparoscopically (keyhole surgery). Small incisions are created in the abdominal wall to allow small instruments to be passed into the abdominal cavity, guided by a special surgical telescope with a video camera, in order to perform the operation. Sleeve gastrectomy involves converting the stomach into a long thin tube. This is done by stapling the stomach along its entire length and then removing of approximately 80% of it.
This operation reduces the capacity of the stomach and thus restricting the amount of food that can be eaten. It also significantly lowers the level of the hunger hormone, ghrelin (a hormone produced by the parietal cells in the stomach) with the added benefit of reduction in hunger sensation and excellent weight loss.
Bariatric surgery is not only cosmetic surgery. Weight reduction after surgery is an gradual phenomenon. Patient tends to lose almost 70% excess body weight in the span of 1-1.5 year. Simultaneously patient get relief in their associated disease like DM, hypertension, OSA, Osteoarthritis, cardiac risk, infertility and many more.
Most people are discharged home 2 days after surgery. Some will stay an additional night or perhaps two depending on their health issues, especially their mobility, and availability of support at home.
The sleeve gastrectomy is a suitable option for most bariatric patients( BMI >32.5kg/m2) seeking weight loss. it is preferred over the gastric bypass in some special scenarios such as in those who have had multiple abdominal operations and/or complex abdominal hernia surgery with the placement of a mesh that could have resulted in extensive adhesions within the abdomen involving the intestine and rendering the gastric bypass rather hazardous due to risk of injury to the bowel and the likelihood for a considerable prolongation of the operating time with its added risk. It is also a good choice for people who suffer with inflammation of the bowel such as ulcerative colitis and those who have coeliac disease (gluten allergy).